Pi Disk

Pi Disk
Ch'i-chia Culture Style (ca. 2200-1800 B.C.)
Diameter: 14.8 cm,
diameter of hole: 5.3 cm, thickness: 0.65 cm

??The coloring of this lustrous disk is uniformly dark and mottled dark reddish-brown. White striations also cover the surface. The mineral of this piece appears to belong to the dense serpentine found in the Northwest area. Though round and even, the edge is broken in two small areas.

??The poetry of the Ch'ien-lung Emperor (r. 1736-1795) was carved along the rim.
 

Ts'ung Tube

Ts'ung Tube
Ch'i-chia Culture Style (ca. 2200-1800 B.C.)
Max. height: 12.3 cm, max. width: 7 cm, 
diameter of hole: 6 cm, neck: 1.5 cm,
thickness: 0.96 cm

??Like the pi disk above, this lustrous ts'ung tube is dark and mottled dark reddish-brown with white striations. It too appears to be the dense serpentine mineral found in the Northwest. This object is round inside and has a square outside even on all four sides. The neck is somewhat short, and the mouth inside is round inside but not outside. The mouth was cut at a slant. The outside form flares slightly, but the hole inside is straight and smooth.

??The poetry of the Ch'ien-lung Emperor was engraved outside the neck of one end.

??This tube and the disk above were cut from the same material and exhibit the same type of carving. Both pieces also bear the engraved inscriptions of the Ch'ien-lung Emperor, but the contents do not indicate that the emperor knew the relation between these two pieces. It is unknown whether his poems were meant specifically for these pieces or whether somebody in the palace borrowed them to be engraved here. In other words, these poems may not have been composed for these particular pieces.
 

Ts'ung Tube1
 

??Archaeological data suggests that pi disks and ts'ung tubes were once used in sets in the Ch'i-chia Culture. Excavations from a Ch'i-chia Culture site in Kansu province provide strong evidence. The ts'ung tube and pi disk here were made of the same jade and worked in the same manner, indicating strongly that they were made at the same time.