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Era of Resilience

AAfter the government relocated to Taiwan in 1949, the country faced many daunting challenges and diplomatic setbacks, yet remained resilient and unfazed. Initially, the government worked to safeguard its seat in the United Nations and to maintain relations with its diplomatic allies. Its next main focus was to obtain aid from its allies, and ensure the security and stability necessary for the development of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu.

 

The first diplomatic victory of the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan occurred after it made a formal complaint to the United Nations, in 1949, against the Soviet Union for violating China's territorial integrity, which led to the loss of the mainland by the legitimate government of the ROC to the Chinese Communists. After three years, UN Resolution 505 was adopted on February 1, 1952, with 25 votes in favour, 9 against, 24 abstaining, and 2 in absentia. The resolution meant that the Chinese Communists had no right to enter the United Nations, and the ROC was able to keep its UN membership for two more decades.

 

When reading out the countr y's strong case before the world body, Dr. Tsiang Ting-fu, then ROC permanent representative to the UN, spoke for 2 hours and 45 minutes. His speech is one of the longest and most influential documents in the history of our foreign relations.

 

Twenty documents are on display in this section: the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty of 1954 that guaranteed Taiwan's security, as well as archival materials that show our efforts towards enhancing foreign relations, through flexible approaches, after our withdrawal from the United Nations. These range from the promotion of substantive relations and economic and trade diplomacy with other nations, to participation in international human rights and health matters.


Interim Arrangements Concluded by the Governments Represented at the United Nations Conference on International Organization(New window)

Interim Arrangements Concluded by the Governments Represented at the United Nations Conference on International Organization
Agreement signed: 1945/6/26
Location: San Francisco
35 × 26.2 cm

 

The Republic of China is one of the founding members of the United Nations.

Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between the Republic of China and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics(New window)

Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between the Republic of China and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Treaty signed: 1945/8/14
Location: Moscow
36.8 × 26.7 cm

 

A treaty nullified by the government of the Republic of China on February 25, 1953.

Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between the Republic of China and the United States of America (Sino-American Treaty of Commerce)(New window)

Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between the Republic of China and the United States of America
(Sino-American Treaty of Commerce)

Treaty signed: 1946/11/4
Location: Nanking
35.3 × 25.7 cm

 

The keystone of Sino-American bilateral trade and commerce.

Economic Aid Agreement between the Republic of China and the United States of America(New window)

Economic Aid Agreement between the Republic of China and the United States of America
(Sino-American Economic Aid Agreement)

Agreement signed: 1948/7/3
Location: Nanking
36.1 × 27 cm

 

The basic document for the United States to provide economic aid to the Republic of China.

Exchange of Notes constituting the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of China and the Government of the United States of America on the Establishment of a Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction in China(New window)

Exchange of Notes constituting the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of China and the Government of the United States of America on the Establishment of a Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction in China
Date of exchange: 1948/8/5
Location: Nanking
32 × 20.5 cm

 

The document lays a solid foundation for Taiwan's booming agricultural development.

Documents on 'CHINA PRESENTS HER CASE TO THE UNITED NATIONS' and the Voting Record of UN Resolution 505(New window)

Document on 'CHINA PRESENTS HER CASE TO THE UNITED NATIONS ' and the Voting Record of UN Resolution 505
Date: 1952
Location: New York
36.3 × 22.2 cm

 

The first diplomatic success after the Republic of China government relocates to Taiwan that enables ROC to keep its UN membership for two more decades.

Mutual Defense Treaty between the Republic of China and the United States of America(New window)

Mutual Defense Treaty between the Republic of China and the United States of America
(Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty)

Treaty signed: 1954/12/2
Location: Washington, D.C.
35.3 × 25.5 cm

 

This treaty safeguards the peace, security, and defense of the Taiwan Strait during the Cold War era, but was terminated on December 16, 1979.

Agreement between the Republic of China and the United States of America on the Status of United States Armed Forces in the Republic of China(New window)

Agreement between the Republic of China and the United States of America on the Status of United States Armed Forces in the Republic of China
Agreement signed: 1965/8/31
Location: Taipei
36.2 × 26.2 cm

Agreement Establishing a Food and Fertiliser Technology Centre for the Asian and Pacific Region(New window)

Agreement Establishing a Food and Fertiliser Technology Centre for the Asian and Pacific Region
Agreement signed: 1969/6/11
Location: Kawana
34.9 × 24.3 cm

 

The first case in which an important regional organization is established in Taiwan.

Charter of the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center(New window)

Charter of the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center
Date: 1971/5/22
Location: Taipei
27.2 × 21 cm

 

A joint agreement signed by the Republic of China, the United States of America, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and the Asian Development Bank to set up the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center at Shanhua, Tainan, Taiwan.

The Republic of China's Announcement on its Withdrawal from the United Nations(New window)

The Republic of China's Announcement on Its Withdrawal from the United Nations
Date: 1971/10/25
Location: New York
28.3 × 22 cm

Agreement on the Establishment of Offices between the Association of East Asian Relations and the Interchange Association(New window)

Agreement on the Establishment of Offices between the Association of East Asian Relations and the Interchange Association
Agreement signed: 1972/12/26
Location: Taipei
36.2 × 26.2 cm

 

The first agreement the Republic of China signs with countries lacking diplomatic relations on the establishment of representative offices.

Agreement on Privileges, Exemptions and Immunities between the Coordination Council for North American Affairs and the American Institute in Taiwan(New window)

Agreement on Privileges, Exemptions and Immunities between the Coordination Council for North American Affairs and the American Institute in Taiwan
Agreement signed: 1980/10/2
Location: Washington, D.C.
36.5 × 22.8 cm

 

The first agreement the Republic of China signs with countries lacking diplomatic relations on functional exemptions, privileges, and immunities for each other’s representative offices and personnel.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Council Letter of Invitation(New window)  

 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Council Letter of Invitation
Date: 1992/10/1
38.2 × 27.9 cm
The beginning of the Republic of China's reentry into the multilateral trade system.

 

World Trade Organization (WTO) Protocol of Accession of the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu
Date: 2001/12/2
38.2 × 27.9 cm
The Republic of n a participates in the most important multilateral trade organization after years of persistent endeavour.

 

Instrument of Accession for 'The Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) of the World Trade Organization'
Date: 2009/6/8
36.5 × 26.8 cm
The innovative document that makes foreign government procurement tenders available to Taiwan's businessmen.

Free trade Agreement between the Republic of China and the Republic of Panama(New window)

Free Trade Agreement between the Republic of China and the Republic of Panama
Agreement signed: 2003/8/21
Location: Taipei
36 × 25.7 cm

 

The first free trade agreement the ROC signs with foreign countries.

World Health Assembly (WHA) Letter of Invitation(New window)

World Health Assembly (WHA) Letter of Invitation
Date: 2009/4/28
Location: Geneva
29.7 × 21 cm

 

The Republic of China's participation, for the first time, in a meeting of a UN specialised agency since the ROC's withdrawal from the United Nations, in this case as an observer.

Instruments of Ratification for 2 UN International Covenants on Human Rights

 

Instrument of Ratification for the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights(New window)

Instrument of Ratification for the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Instrument of Ratification Signed: 2009/5/14
36.4 × 26.7 cm

Instrument of Ratification for the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights(New window)

Instrument of Ratification for the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Instrument of Ratification Signed: 2009/5/14