康熙皇帝與奏摺制度
        清代的奏摺制度起源於何時?目前學界有二種看法:一是認為清代奏摺制度發端於順治朝,因為順治朝《實錄》上已見「奏摺」一詞;然由於至今僅見康熙朝以後的奏摺,未見順治朝的實物,因而多數學者主張奏摺制度起源於康熙年間。一般以為,康熙皇帝親政後,為求掌握政經情勢,暸解地方民情,即要求部份官員在題本、奏本等公文書外,另行繕寫密摺進呈,從此成為清代皇帝與官員之間的私密交通管道。 
      
        至於這項制度是康熙哪一年開始實施,目前沒有定論。現今所知最早的漢文奏摺是康熙二十八年(1689)二月二十七日大學士伊察阿的〈奏謝諭賜問平安摺〉,本院現存最早的漢文奏摺,是江寧織造曹寅於康熙三十六年(1697)六月初八日向皇帝請安,並賀蕩平噶爾丹的摺子;最早的滿文硃批奏摺,是康熙三十五年(1696)三月初五日皇太子胤礽的請安奏事摺。

Emperor K'ang-hsi and the Emergence of the Tsou-che Memorial System
        Scholars of Ch'ing history hold different opinions about the origin of the tsou-che memorial system. Some maintain that the system began during the Shun-chih 順治 reign on the ground that the term can be found in the emperor's Shih-lu 實錄, or Veritable Records. Since no material evidence from the Shun-chih reign has been preserved, a large number of scholars tend to believe that the Ch'ing tsou-che memorial first appeared in the K'ang-hsi reign. It is generally agreed that after assuming the throne the K'ang-hsi emperor had required that some officials submit secret memorials, in addition to the regular t'i-pen 題本 and tsou-pen 奏本 reports, to allow him more effective control over the political and economic situations of the country and better understanding of local sentiment. These secret memorials thus constituted a confidential channel of communication between the emperor and his officials.
      No consensus has yet been reached in the academic community as to what year this system was first implemented. The earliest known memorial written in Chinese is dated the 27th day of the second month in the 28th year of the K'ang-hsi reign (1689). The earliest Ch'ing memorial written in Chinese in the collection of the National Palace Museum, though, is one greeting memorial presented by Director Ts'ao Yin 曹寅 of the Chiang-ning 江寧 Imperial Silk Factory, dated the 8th day of the sixth month in the 36th year of the K'ang-hsi reign (1697), congratulating the emperor on having subdued Galdan. The earliest palace memorial written in Manchu, a greeting memorial written by Crown Prince Yin-jeng 胤礽, is dated the 5th day of the third month in the 35th year of the K`ang-hsi reign (1696).

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