Article II of the 1860 Additional Treaty of Peking, stipulated that "the currently undecided boundaries in the western territories henceforth should follow the natural divides of mountains or rivers, as well as along China's permanent kalun's (frontier sentry stations), and should proceed from the end signpost of 1728 at Shabing dabakha, all the way west to Zaysan-nor, then southwest along Temurtu-nor inside the Tian Shan mountain ridge, finally to the border of Kokand in the south." It was also agreed that both sides should send officials to conduct a joint survey of the boundaries and to set down the new border signposts. The Protocol of Chuguchak was accordingly signed during the Tongzhi reign, followed by the Treaty of Livadia and the Treaty of St. Petersburg during the reign of Guangxu, greatly changing the borders at the Northwest. The treaties and maps on display in the present exhibition give a clear picture of how over the time the Great Qing's territories had receded eastwards.
In October, 1864, General Mingyi of Uliassutai, representing the Qing government met with the Russian delegation led by Zakharov at Tarbagatai（Chuguchak） and signed a Sino-Russian joint survey of the Northwest (the Protocol of Chuguchak of 1864). The present map shows the Sino-Russian border line from Shabing dabakha to the Pamir Mountains, as stipulated in the articles I, II, and III of the agreement.
It can be seen clearly on the map that to the west of Ili, from Lake Balkash and the Chu River in the north, to the Tarras River in the west, then down to the Narin River and all the way east to its origin at the Tian Shan Mountains, the huge territory which had belonged to the Qing China were receded to Russia under the agreement. The borderline moved eastwards, from the Alatau Mountains, the Konggor Obo Mountain, the Turgen River, Ili Birai Tsikin on the Ili River, and Ch'un-tzu in the south of the Ili River, to Temurlik Mountains and Karatau Mountains, along the major ridge line of the Tian Shan Mountains. Qing lost Lake Balkash, the Lepsy River, the Aksu River, the Kuke-usu River, the Kharatala River, the middle and lower valleys of the Ili River west to Ili Birai Tsikin, the Chu River, the Talas River, the upstream region of the Narin River, and Temurtu-nor.