Wang Hsi-chih (303-361), Chin dynasty
Album leaf, ink on paper, 23 x 14.8 cm
Wang Hsi-chih, whose ancestors came from Shantung, was born into a scholarly aristocratic family. Fleeing south at the end of the Western Chin (265-316) during conflicts at the time, he settled down in Kuei-chi, Chekiang. He rose to the positions of General of the Right Army and Administrator of Kuei-chi but left office in the Yung-ho period (345-356) of the Eastern Chin, traveling the land with renowned fellow gentlemen. Pouring out his heart in poetry and ballads, he also delved into music and especially calligraphy. His study of calligraphy began with contemporary writers and extended back to the ancients as he learned from the styles of many masters, picking and choosing the best for an in-depth and extensive manner. He was particularly gifted in creating forceful characters, fusing the brush methods of various Ch'in (221-206 BCE) seal and Han (206 BCE-220 CE) clerical scripts into his own ideal renditions of regular, running, and cursive script forms. Consequently, later writers in the T'ang dynasty (618-907) praised him for “bringing the best methods together to form a style of his own to become a master for all ages.”
This is a short letter written in semi-regular script bearing the writer's and recipient's names at the front and end, the contents dealing with a greeting to a friend after a snowfall. The Ming dynasty connoisseur Chan Ching-feng (1528-1602) pointed out that the brushwork here is rounded yet strong and ancient yet elegant, bearing a lofty and leisurely manner that had a major influence on the running script of the great Yüan dynasty calligrapher Chao Meng-fu (1254-1322). Judging from the strokes, this work indeed mainly reveals the use of a rounded and blunt brush, with none of the dots and hooks revealing the brush tip, creating an overall even and steady form. The elegant manner here also reveals a simple and introverted harmony. In the Ch'ing dynasty, the Ch'ien-lung Emperor (r. 1736-1795) admired this work so much that he praised it as “Alone under the Heavens, a rare match with the ancient today.” In 1746, he referred to this work along with Wang Hsien-chih's (344-386) “Chung-ch'iu (Mid-Autumn)” and Wang Hsün's (349-400) “Po-yüan” as the “Three Rarities,” storing them in the “Three Rarities Hall” (San-hsi T'ang). “Timely Clearing after Snowfall” is generally considered a rare and fine tracing copy made in the T'ang dynasty.
Wang Hsi-chih (303-361), Chin dynasty
Handscroll, ink on paper, 24.8 x 21.5 cm
Because this work begins with the two characters “Hsing-pieh,” it is also known as such. This is a copy using outlines filled with ink, in which the outlines of the individual strokes are carefully delineated with brushstrokes and then filled with ink. It was the most faithful method of making a copy in ancient times, hence the saying that it “ranks second only to the original itself.” The separate piece of yellow silk at the front bears a title in Emperor Hui-tsung's (r. 1100-1125) “slender gold” script of the Sung dynasty along with seal impressions of the imperial household. It was also recorded in Hui-tsung's Hsüan-ho Calligraphy Catalogue and also includes seal impressions for “Ch'un-yü chung-pi” and “Ming-ch'ang yü-lan” of the Chin emperor Chang-tsung (r. 1190-1208) as well as collections of later (Yüan, Ming, and Ch'ing) dynasties.
Judging from the contents of the letter, we know that the recipient was the Prefect of I-chou, Chou Fu (293-365), and that this is a late work by Wang Hsi-chih. This letter also appears in the compilation “Shih-ch'i” surviving from the T'ang dynasty (618-907), but the lines there are stiffer and do not reflect the delicate touches of the brush, completely lacking the style of Wang Hsi-chih's calligraphy. Thus, it is much inferior to the faithfulness of outline copies such as this work.
Sun Kuo-t'ing (fl. latter half of 7th c.), T'ang dynasty
Handscroll, ink on paper, 26.5 x 900.8 cm
This surviving handscroll of cursive script is about nine meters long and consists of about 3,700 characters in 351 lines. This masterpiece was written by the learned theorist and practitioner of calligraphy Sun Kuo-t'ing and completed in the third year of the Ch'ui-kung year (687).
In Sun Kuo-t'ing's own words, he started paying attention to calligraphy at the Chinese age of 15, delving into it for several decades thereafter. With calligraphy his labor of love, combined with an exceptional talent in it, Sun's efforts led him to become praised by critics through the ages. He was determined to compose a work to assist beginning students of calligraphy, but unfortunately unable to complete it before his death, leaving only this preface, the contents of which can be divided into four main parts.
The first part discusses achieving “breadth” and “skill” in calligraphy, emphasizing the importance of skill in all the major script types. The second is a description of the principles behind recording “Essay on Calligraphy.” The third emphasizes the copying of models, reminding scholars that when copying they must focus on spiritual elements and not just external forms. The final part is a description of the process, attitude, and realm in studying calligraphy. “Essay on Calligraphy” contains both elegant and coarser manners of expression all together in one piece. In the more elegant parts, the brushwork is gentle with more graceful. In coarser sections, the brushwork is quick without ornamentation. It seems that Sun Kuo-t'ing intentionally sought to provide concrete examples of the various forms of beauty in calligraphy when doing this work.
Yen Chen-ch'ing (709-785), T'ang dynasty
Handscroll, ink on paper, 28.3 x 75.5 cm
Yen Chen-ch'ing was a native of Lin-i in Shantung. After the revolt of Huai-hsi Military Commissioner Li Hsi-lieh in 784, Yen Chen-ch'ing was ordered by the court to seek his surrender, but on September 10, 785, he refused to submit to the rebel out of loyalty and was murdered. Later generations respectfully referred to him as “Yen, Duke of Lu” and “Yen of P'ing-yüan.” Earlier during the rebellion of An Lu-shan (ca. 703-757), Yen Chen-ch'ing's cousin Yen Kao-ch'ing was serving as Magistrate of Ch'ang-shan. When rebel forces invaded the area, T'ang armies under T'ai-yüan Military Commissioner Wang Ch'eng-yeh did not come to the rescue, resulting in the fall of the town and the slaughter of the loyal Yen Kao-ch'ing, his son Yen Chi-ming, and the entire Yen clan there (more than thirty in all). This is what Yen Chen-ch'ing meant when he wrote in this piece, “A traitorous official did not come to the rescue, so a lone town was surrounded. A father and son perished, their (entire) nest destroyed.” After the incident, Yen Chen-ch'ing sent his elder nephew Ch'üan-ming to the town to make funerary arrangements. However, he could only find the foot of Kao-ch'ing and the skull of Chi-ming. It was under these heart-wrenching circumstances that Yen Chen-ch'ing wrote “Draft of a Requiem to My Nephew” at the Chinese age of 50.
Scholars have pointed out that the character of a person is revealed by his or her calligraphy. Yen Chen-ch'ing was renowned as a man of loyalty and integrity all his life, and this spirit is fully revealed in his calligraphy. As such, this handscroll is one of the works most frequently cited by scholars. Done with a stubby brush, Yen imparted a round and upright manner to the strokes that suggests flowing seal script. Though the ink is so dark that it appears scorched, considerable variety to the ink tones from start to finish is due to the speed and movement of the brush. Consequently, it looks as if written in a single sitting.
This scroll was a preliminary draft for a more formal composition. Consequently, Yen Chen-ch'ing went back and crossed out and changed characters in numerous places. This shows how he composed and edited his writing, providing insight into his ideas as well as his calligraphy. Despite the formality of the content, the style reveals considerable ups and downs emotionally, making this one of the premier examples from the hand of Yen Chen-ch'ing and praised as “the second best work of running script under the Heavens.”
Huai-su (fl. latter half of 8th c.), T'ang dynasty
Handscroll, ink on paper, 28.3 x 755 cm
Huai-su was a monk who originally went by the surname Ch'ien and the style name Ts'ang-chen. Born in Ling-ling County, Hunan, he later moved to Ch'ang-sha. As a youth, he became interested in Buddhism, eventually taking the tonsure. Huai-su was more renowned, however, as a devotee to the art of cursive script. At around 772, he traveled north to the capital Ch'ang-an and Loyang. His cursive script, similar in spirit to his free and unrestrained personality, was greatly admired by famous contemporaries, poets, and other calligraphers, such as Yen Chen-ch'ing (709-785), who all presented him with gifts of prose and poetry. In 777, Huai-su transcribed some of these with a preface in “wild” cursive script to create this handscroll.
In this work, Huai-su used a fine brush to write characters. The strokes are rounded and dashing, like steel wires curled and bent into shape. The tip of the brush is exposed where it lifts from the paper, leaving a distinctive hook--hence the description “steel strokes and silver hooks” for Huai-su's calligraphy. A continuous cursive force also permeates the entire piece. The brush skirts up, down, left, and right as it speeds across the paper. The crescendos of the brush, like a sword, reveal varying speeds, the calligraphy appearing light and heavy in places. In other words, this work is like a symphony of distinct rhythms, harmonies, and sections where the instruments are all seamlessly orchestrated for an overall sense of feeling and depth. In addition to the strokes, the dots suggest breaks to the flowing strokes. In the relentless force of the brushwork, the centered brush swirls and dances to create character after character and line after line, only to be punctuated by the impeccably placed dots. Despite this piece being an example of “wild” cursive script, it also has a great sense of regularity. Thus, the handscroll represents the ultimate in cursive script--control with freedom and spirit with restraint.